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英语国家概况精讲系列(二十二)

发布时间:2018-04-16 

  英语国家概况精讲系列(二十二)

  Chapter 9

  第九章

  Social Affairs

  英国社会

  I. Health and Social Services

  全国医疗保健计划

  1. Britain is regarded as a welfare state. This system is funded out of national insurance contributions and taxation. In Britain the term applies mainly to the National Health Service (NHS), national insurance and social security.

  英国被认为是福利制度的国家。此制度的所需资金来源于全国保险税和赋税。在英国,这主要是指国民保健制度,国民保险和社会保障制度。

  2. The National Health Service provides for every resident, regardless of income, a full range of medical services. The service was established in the U.K. in 1948. Over 82 per cent of the cost of the health service in Great Britain id funded out of general taxation. The rest is met from: (1) the NHS element of National Insurance contributions; (2) charges towards the cost of certain items such as drugs prescribed by family doctors, and general dental treatment; (3) other receipts, including land sales and the proceeds of income generation schemes.

  不管个人收入如何,国民保健制度为每个居民提供全面医疗服务。英国于1948年确立此制度。英国国民保健制度82%以下的费用来自普通税收,其他部分来自(1)国民保险金中的国民保险金部分;(2)象对家庭一生开的药单和普通牙科治疗所收的费用;(3)其他收入,包括出售土地和增收计划的收益。

  3. There are proportional charges for most types of HNS dental treatment, including examinations. Sight test are free to children. No one is liable to be charged by the National Health Service for treatment in an accident, emergency or for an infectious disease. Central government is directly responsible for the NHS, which is administered by a range of local health authorities and health boards throughout the U……

  国民保健制度中多数牙科治疗都要收取一定比例的费用,包括检查费。视力检查对儿童免费。国民保健制度对事故,急诊或传染病的治疗不收费,中央政府直接负责国民保健制度,由全国各地的保健机构和卫生委员会实施

  4. The family health services are those given to patients by doctors, dentists, opticians and pharmacists. In order to obtain the benefits of the NHS a person must normally be registered on the list of a general practitioner (GP, sometimes knows as a “family doctor”)。

  家庭保健服务由医生、牙医、眼科大夫和药剂师提供给病人。为获得国民保健制度的服务,人们必须在普通开业医生的名册上注册。

  5. A full range of hospital services is provided by district general hospital. There are also specialist hospital or units for children, people suffering from mental illness, those with learning disabilities, and elderly people, and for the treatment of specific diseases.